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[ADA2014]葡萄糖稳态的大脑调控
——Outstanding科学成就奖获得者 Joel K. Elmquist教授专访
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作者:J.K.Elmquist 2014/6/14 12:59:00    加入收藏
内容概要:访者简介:Joel K. Elmquist教授为美国德克萨斯大学西南医学中心内科学主任和教授,下丘脑研究中心主任。其研究领域主要是大脑摄食调节通路的识别、体重和葡萄糖的体内平衡。Elmquist教授2008年曾获得美国内分泌学会颁发的Ernst Oppenheimer奖。当地时间6月16日10:15-11:45am,Elmquist教授将发表其获奖演讲(Claude Bernard Was Right--Brain Control of Glucose Homeostasis)。
  <International Diabetes>: Your research has focused on the brain control of glucose homeostasis and its importance in the development of diabetes. Could you tell us about your research?
 
  Prof Elmquist: We investigate the pathways in the brain that control basic functions including food intake, body weight and glucose levels. The brain is very complicated so what we have done is develop several mouse models in which we can manipulate genes of interest that we think are important in these processes in various specific sets of neurons. We can make manipulations of key genes in a very restricted class of neurons to see what the function of a leptin receptor, for example, is on that one class of neurons. We can then study functioning mice to see what happens to their control of food intake, body weight and glucose. This is not a new concept. In my presentation, I am going to talk about famous experiments from 150 years ago that first suggested this was the case.
 
  《国际糖尿病》:您的研究关注的是大脑对血糖稳态的控制及其在糖尿病发生中的重要性。您能否介绍一下您的研究?
  Elmquist教授:我们研究了大脑中控制摄食、体重及血糖水平等人体基本功能的一些通路。大脑是非常复杂的,因此我们开发了一些小鼠模型,使我们能够在各种特定神经元系统中对我们认为比较重要的基因进行调控。我们在限定类别的神经元中对关键基因如瘦素受体基因进行了调控以确定其功能。然后在功能性小鼠模型中观察其对摄食调控、体重及血糖的影响及控制作用。这并不是一个新概念。在我的演讲中,我将对150年前首次提出这种概念的著名实验进行介绍。
 
  <International Diabetes>:Beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance have been recognized as the main causes of diabetes. According to your research, what do you think is the role of brain control glucose homeostasis in the development of type 2 diabetes? Are there any interactions between beta cell dysfunction, insulin resistance and brain control?
 
  Prof Elmquist: Yes, absolutely. We know that there are neurons in the brain that are key sensors of metabolic signals such as hormones like leptin and insulin, but also metabolites such as glucose itself. These neurons sense changes in these metabolic signals. They integrate that response and then, in turn, engage downstream effector pathways to change things such as insulin secretion but also insulin action in target tissues. In my presentation, I will be outlining the ability of one of these pathways to control insulin sensitivity in the liver, so that it is the brain that is controlling insulin sensitivity in the liver.
 
  《国际糖尿病》:β 细胞功能障碍及胰岛素抵抗是糖尿病发病的主要机制。根据您的研究,您认为大脑控制的血糖稳态在2型糖尿病的发生过程中发挥了怎样的作用?β细胞功能障碍、胰岛素抵抗与大脑控制之间是否存在相互作用?
  Elmquist教授:是的,三者之间绝对存在相互作用。我们都知道,大脑中有些神经元是代谢信号——如激素瘦素、胰岛素以及代谢产物血糖本身的关键感受器。这些神经元能感知上述代谢信号的变化,并可对此进行反应,反过来调节下游的效应通路,进而改变胰岛素的分泌及其在靶组织中的作用。在我的演讲中,我将对这些通路之一,控制肝脏胰岛素敏感性的一条通路进行简要概述。大脑是可以控制肝脏中胰岛素的敏感性的。
 


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